Scale text with a minimum size using pure CSS

Creating a responsive design is best done without unnecessary reliance on toolkits, frameworks and the like, especially where basic formatting can be controlled by CSS instead of JavaScript. The set of tools in CSS3 is of course limited compared to that in JavaScript, but one aspect of responsive design–scaling text–can often by performed satisfactorily in pure CSS.

One part of the puzzle is to scale text smoothly according to the size of the viewport. For this, the oft-overlooked vw unit can work wonders. However, without a min-font-size property available in CSS3, simply scaling to zero wouldn’t work in a wide range of situations, and a pure percentage-based scaling without a foundation might also not scale appropriately. In general, for usability purposes it’s best to use the smallest size of text that satisfies both the readability requirement and relative size requirement at the smallest viewport size, and scale up from there.

Luckily, by using the CSS calc() function, we can supply a floor value for font sizes and scale up from there. This provides a functional equivalent for the missing min-font-size, since the vw-based component of the calculated size can safely go to zero, approaching the limit of the constant base size. Using this approach, one might create some classes to apply standard font sizes as in the following, apply them to heading tags, etc. Try it for yourself!

.fontSizeXXSmallScaled { font-size:calc(.8em + 1vw); }
.fontSizeXSmallScaled { font-size:calc(.8em + 1.2vw); }
.fontSizeSmallScaled { font-size:calc(.9em + 1.4vw); }
.fontSizeMediumScaled { font-size:calc(1em + 1.5vw); }
.fontSizeLargeScaled { font-size:calc(1.25em + 1.6vw); }
.fontSizeXLargeScaled { font-size:calc(1.5em + 1.7vw); }
.fontSizeXXLargeScaled { font-size:calc(1.75em + 1.8vw); }


Dynamically resize elements sans JavaScript with the help of clutter-free CSS

I’m a big fan of code, including CSS, that’s as easy to use as possible. I’m not a fan of using certain large frameworks such as Bootstrap just to get responsive design onto a site, when something much smaller and simpler will often do. With a few CSS tricks, it’s possible to create CSS containers that will behave responsibly at your chosen viewport break-points, but that can be stripped down to a single class added to a container in many cases.

To that end, observe the following example, which applies table-style formatting at a large/desktop screen size wraps items into a grid-style layout at a medium size, with configurable options for numbers of columns at different numbers of child items; and finally collapses to an item width of 100%. You may also try it for yourself.

* { box-sizing: border-box }

.columnContainer:after {
   content: " ";
   visibility: hidden;
   display: block;
   height: 0;
   clear: both;

@media all and ( min-width: 768px ) {

  .columnContainer { 
    display: table;
    width: 100%;
  .columnContainer > div { 
    display: table-cell;


@media all and ( max-width: 767px ) and ( min-width: 481px ) {

  .columnContainer { 
     width: 100%;

  .columnContainer > div {
    float: left;
    width: 100%;

  .columnContainer > div:first-child:nth-last-child(2), .columnContainer > div:first-child:nth-last-child(2) ~ div {  width: 50%;  } 

  .columnContainer > div:first-child:nth-last-child(3), .columnContainer > div:first-child:nth-last-child(3) ~ div {  width: 33.3333%;  } 

  .columnContainer > div:first-child:nth-last-child(4), .columnContainer > div:first-child:nth-last-child(4) ~ div {  width: 50%;  } 
  .columnContainer > div:first-child:nth-last-child(4) ~ div:nth-child(2n+1) { clear: both !important; } 

  .columnContainer > div:first-child:nth-last-child(5), .columnContainer > div:first-child:nth-last-child(5) ~ div {  width: 20%; } 

  .columnContainer > div:first-child:nth-last-child(6), .columnContainer > div:first-child:nth-last-child(6) ~ div {  width: 33.3333%;  } 
  .columnContainer > div:first-child:nth-last-child(6) ~ div:nth-child(3n+1) { clear: both; } 
  .columnContainer > div:first-child:nth-last-child(7), .columnContainer > div:first-child:nth-last-child(7) ~ div {  width: 14.2857%; } 

  .columnContainer > div:first-child:nth-last-child(8), .columnContainer > div:first-child:nth-last-child(8) ~ div {  width: 25%;  } 
  .columnContainer > div:first-child:nth-last-child(8) ~ div:nth-child(4n+1) { clear: both !important; } 

  .columnContainer > div:first-child:nth-last-child(9), .columnContainer > div:first-child:nth-last-child(9) ~ div {  width: 33%;  } 
  .columnContainer > div:first-child:nth-last-child(9) ~ div:nth-child(3n+1) { clear: both !important; } 
  .columnContainer > div:first-child:nth-last-child(10), .columnContainer > div:first-child:nth-last-child(10) ~ div {  width: 20%;  } 
  .columnContainer > div:first-child:nth-last-child(10) ~ div:nth-child(5n+1) { clear: both !important; } 

  .columnContainer > div:first-child:nth-last-child(11), .columnContainer > div:first-child:nth-last-child(11) ~ div {  width: 9.0909%; } 

  .columnContainer > div:first-child:nth-last-child(12), .columnContainer > div:first-child:nth-last-child(12) ~ div {  width: 25%;  } 
  .columnContainer > div:first-child:nth-last-child(12) ~ div:nth-child(4n+1) { clear: both !important; } 


@media all and ( max-width: 480px ) {
  .columnContainer > div { width: 100% }

This implementation depends on some CSS3 features working in tandem. At the medium viewport size, by combining the :first-child and :nth-last-child(n) (with following siblings) selectors in tandem, the widths and wrapping for child items can be set specifically based on the number of child items. To create a new row, the nth child is then selected for clearing. An implementation without using floats is also possible; the main technique here is the selection of different layout techniques based on the number of children.

Once this has been implemented, adding a single class, in this case “columnContainer”, on a parent element will hook all this up so it just works. It would also be possible to combine this technique, of course, with named custom classes that applied different widths to columns and the like.

Applying shadow overlays with pure CSS

Shadow or darkening overlays can be useful for providing contrast between a container’s background and content, as well as providing an easy way to differentiate presentation for button mouseovers and similar situations. Older methods of providing such useful inner shadows relied on using an extra div or other container, to which one would apply a color and opacity. However, there’s a better way.

The desired effect can be achieved using two related tricks: the now well-supported opacity feature of rgba colors, as well as the “inset” property of the CSS3 box shadow which applies the box shadow inside an element. The trick is to set the shadow width to greater than half the size of the element (any greater size will do), to ensure that the shadow covers the entire element. Using this approach, one might specify the following to achieve a 50% shading:

box-shadow: rgba(0, 0, 0, .5) 0 0 0 1000000px inset;

Try it for yourself.